The Deliberative Nursing Process Theory

Introduction and Background Information of the Theory

 Arguably, most of the population has visited a healthcare facility to seek treatment at one time in life. People visit a health facility when they have health needs that they cannot satisfy by themselves. The role of nurses and other health practitioners is to meet the patient’s needs after carefully assessing and diagnosing the presented case. Nurses should avoid prejudice before listening to the patient’s meanings and interpretation of the health challenges. The nurses should analyze the patient’s behaviors and prescribe an appropriate plan of care. This paper will elucidate the deliberative nursing theory in detail, relate the theory to a nursing practice situation, and describe how the theory applies to nursing leadership, ethical decision-making, and nursing research.

The deliberative nursing theory is a grand nursing theory that focuses on the nurses’ and the patients’ roles in establishing a solid relationship. Ida Jean Orlando developed the theory from her study of collaborating mental health concepts in the nursing practice (Gonzalo, 2021). Ida suggested that nurses incorporate patients’ interpretations of situations and validate various inferences before concluding their next step (Gonzalo, 2021). When patients cry for help, the nurses are obliged to analyze and interpret their behaviors to determine their appropriate needs and meet them effectively (Nursing Theory, n.d.). Before making up any plan of care, and where possible, the nurse and the patient must communicate where the nurse should offer the patient ample time to describe their situation to form a basis for the entire treatment process. Understanding the patient’s needs enables the nurses to develop an effective care plan that can efficiently be utilized even in further complexities with the patient’s health. A good nurse pays attention to the verbal and non-verbal cues of the patient from the beginning to gather adequate subjective and objective data during the assessment.


The deliberative nursing theory has five stages that enable nurses to devise an effective care plan. These stages are: assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation (Tammy et al., 2022). During the assessment stage, the nurses utilize a nursing framework to gather subjective and objective data about the patient. During the diagnosis stage, the nurses utilize their clinical judgment skills and assess the patient’s health needs in detail. Nurses address all needs in the diagnosis stage at the planning stage. The expected goals and outcomes enable the nurse to devise an appropriate nursing care plan. During implementation, the nurse uses the nursing care plan and administers treatment. At the evaluation stage, the nurses check the patients’ progress, highlighting the uncompleted tasks. A nursing process is different with different patient’s needs, and the exercise is adjusted or stopped depending on the patient health.

A Clinical Nursing Practice

 The deliberative nursing process applies in many nursing situations. The five stages of the deliberative nursing process are applied every day in health care facilities to enhance optimal patient care. In my clinical practice, I recently carried out a nursing process on patient X, a 50 years old man who came to the hospital complaining of a headache and a fever. I introduced myself to the patient and began with the assessment. I offered the patient an opportunity to describe how he felt.

A Nursing Care Plan on Malaria

 Nursing AssessmentDiagnosisPlanningImplementationEvaluation
Subjective Data The patient had these symptoms High feverHeadacheShivering Joint painsChills Objective Data High fever above the normal body temperature.Dry skinTemperatures rose in the evening.The patient’s body was warm after touch.  The blood smear process indicated the presence of malarial parasites.  A Further assessment included observing the patient’s breath sounds to evaluate if the patient had respiratory distress.From the objective and the subjective data recorded about the patient, he could be suffering from malaria due to a parasitic infection that increased his basal metabolism. At the end of the treatment plan, the patient should have an average body temperature.Monitor the temperature rise after every hour to identify the rate of the temperature rise.Ensuring adequate ventilation around the patient to encourage heat loss Providing the patient with cold compressors for heat loss I advised the patient to use a mosquito net when sleeping.I advised the patient to consume easily digestible foods like drinks to minimize basal metabolism.I administered anti-malarial drugs like chloroquine.After taking the prescribed medication, the patient should have a normal body temperature.

Application of the Nursing Theory to the Patient

To create a plan of care for a patient with malaria symptoms, nurses follow the nursing process described in the nursing process theory. The subjective and objective data collected form a basis for the patient’s treatment. Careful analysis of the patient’s symptoms helps the nurses to prescribe the proper treatment in the implementation stage. The goal is to lower the patient’s temperatures and restore health. For the success of this process, the nurse and the patient must establish a solid example that will enable the collection of all information required for treatment. The nurses observe the patient’s behavior as unmet needs mostly using Maslow Hierarchy, hypothesize them, and develop a care plan to address the patient’s needs.

Application of the Nursing Process Theory

The deliberative nursing process theory is significant in many fields, such as nursing leadership, ethical decision-making process, and nursing research. In nursing leadership, the deliberative nursing process theory is instrumental. Just as in nursing leadership, which entails inspiring, challenging, and motivating health care professionals to work together to achieve common goals, deliberative nursing process theory stresses the importance of establishing a nurse-patient relationship to enable the nurse to meet the unmet needs of the patients. In a complex healthcare environment, nursing process theory enables nurses to work together to address the numerous patient’s needs, as observed during the Covid-19 pandemic. Understanding the nursing theory helps nurses understand that a good nurse establishes a solid relationship with the patient and calls for teamwork from their colleagues to address the patient’s unmet needs. Nursing leadership excels when the entire nursing team inspires and supports each other in their daily practices (Felicia Sadler & Vaughn, 2020). This coordination leads to success.

The deliberative nursing process theory helps nurses handle patients’ data confidentially in ethical decision-making. During the assessment stage, the patients share personal and clinical data information regarding their health. The nursing process theory enables nurses to make effective, ethical decisions by treating patients’ data with confidentiality. The information gathered should only be utilized in the nursing process to avoid bleaching the nursing ethics (ANA Center for Ethics and Human Rights, 2015). The information gathered should only be utilized in the nursing process to avoid bleaching the nursing ethics

In nursing research, the deliberative nursing process help in the acquisition of data for advancing various nursing practices. Researchers utilize various stages of the nursing process, such as the assessing and evaluation stage. Researchers assess, analyze and evaluate the collected data, and the best scientific inquiry is formulated to shape various health policies and achieve a global impact.

In conclusion, the nursing theory is very vital in the nursing practice. The theory asserts that nurses must incorporate patients’ interpretations of situations and validate various inferences before concluding. The nursing process entails establishing a solid relationship between the nurse and patient to allow information sharing that enables nurses to formulate an effective care plan. After establishing solid relationships, a good nurse pays attention to the verbal and non-verbal behaviors of the patient from the beginning to gather adequate information. The theory is vital in nursing leadership, ethical decision-making, and nursing research, where researchers adopt various theory stages to gather comprehensive data.


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Felicia Sadler, F., & Vaughn, N. (2020). Nursing Leadership: What Is It and Why Is It Important?. Relias. Retrieved 26 May 2022, from

Gonzalo, A. (2021). Ida Jean Orlando: Deliberative Nursing Process Theory. Nurseslabs. Retrieved 26 May 2022, from

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Tammy J, Toney-Butler, & Thayer, J. (2022). Nursing Process. StatPearls.