Healthcare Discussion Posts

There are many cases of mental incapacity which may require medical decisions. Mental illnesses such as schizophrenia require early treatment to counter severe symptoms. Schizophrenia patients exhibit problems with cognitive thinking, behaviour and emotions (Schizophrenia, n.d.). Signs and symptoms may vary, but most patients exhibit delusions which make patients form false beliefs which are not real. Patients also experience hallucinations, disorganization of speech, and unpredictable agitation, affecting their motor behaviours (Schizophrenia, n.d.). For instance, Alvin, a 25 old male client in a healthcare clinic, exhibited these signs. He belongs to a middle socio-economic group, and since childhood, he was shy and rarely initiated any conversion or activities. As Alvin approached adolescence, his parents ignored significant behavioural changes such as irritability and anti-social behaviour.


These behaviours continued for a while, and when Alvin was 19 years old, he had a violent outburst over a minor issue. When his parents questioned him, he threatened to commit suicide. The family had no history of trauma, drug misuse, or psychiatric illnesses. He experienced difficulties completing various tasks in school, concentrating and maintaining eye contact with the teacher. He was socially withdrawn, had disorganized speech, and was violent towards other students. Alvin exhibits signs and symptoms of schizophrenia. Alvin’s suicidal thoughts, aggressiveness, social withdrawal and disorganized speech made me question his mental capacity. To begin assessment for schizophrenia, I would undertake schizophrenia tests and screening, psychiatric evaluations, physical exams and diagnostic procedures for schizophrenia. There exists no sure treatment plan for schizophrenia; however, following a treatment plan can prevent the apparent symptoms from worsening.


Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia – Symptoms and causes. Mayo Clinic. Retrieved 25 May 2022, from

Discussion Two

 Ethical dilemmas are common in the healthcare field. Professions in the healthcare sector should exhibit high ethical standards in their daily duties as outlined in the medical ethics. Healthcare professionals should treat patients equally without discrimination. Besides, they should seek patient interest and consider the best alternative to pursue, avoiding all harm that may arise with their treatment procedures. One major ethical dilemma in the healthcare field is whether it is right to undertake physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Physician-assisted suicide is committing suicide with the help of a healthcare provider (Jordan, 2017). Physicians encounter ethical dilemmas when asked to undertake PAS. An ethical committee is essential to address the issues and enable the physicians to make effective decisions that respect all the involved values and interests. In most countries, PAS is illegal, but in several states, in the United States, it is legalized for patients who are terminally ill. Opponents argue that PAS is against the physicians’ role as physicians should not decide on the patient’s fate. It is also against the American Medical Association’s Code of ethics which argues that killing is wrong (Jordan, 2017). Proponents view PAS as a compassionate act that fulfils the policy of non-abandonment and enables the patient to have the right to autonomy. (Jordan, 2017). Healthcare providers end up facing controversy about whether to undertake PAS.

 Many healthcare providers adopt their beliefs on PAS from the ethical theories which shape their morality and actions. The utilitarian theory of ethics applies to PAS as it focuses on the consequences more than the rules that accompany any practice (Jordan, 2017). Besides, it targets the positive and the negative rather than what is right or wrong (Jordan, 2017). Based on act-utilitarian, do not kill is a rule that physicians should not break, but if patients with terminal illnesses are experiencing extreme pain and they choose to die, and all involved will benefit, PAS should be undertaken (Jordan, 2017). Undertaking PAS will be against the rule do not kill, but the benefits after that outweigh the rules for everyone involved. Therefore, physicians who follow the utilitarian theory will advocate for PAS.

 The principle of the virtue of ethics applies to PAS. The principle of virtue ethics focuses on acting like a good person while showcasing virtuous behaviour) rather than whether the act intended will lead to harm or benefits (Jordan, 2017). Virtuous physicians will use their compassion to understand the patient’s terminal pain and advocate for PAS as it diminishes the suffering and pain of the patient. 


Jordan, M. (2017). The Ethical Considerations of Physician-assisted Suicide, 4. Retrieved 25 May 2022.

Discussion 3

 Healthcare providers should understand several care measures when dealing with AID patients. Physicians should have a clear understanding of the signs and symptoms of AIDs patients to implement an effective care plan. Due to the broad spectrum of the disease, healthcare providers should possess several therapeutic caring skills. They should understand the multidisciplinary nature of the virus as the virus varies. To establish an effective care plan, they must inquire about the patients’ psychosocial difficulties, immune capabilities, and all other prevailing health conditions. While healthcare providers provide patients with quality healthcare services, they should consider various legal and ethical factors. Firstly, they must protect the confidentiality of the patients by avoiding exposure of information about their health to third parties (Lin & Liang, 2005). However, confidentiality is limited in some cases. In many states, the partner notification law calls for health care providers to inform the patient’s sex partner (Limits on Confidentiality, n.d.). Also, bodies such as the Centre of Disease and Control require information on the number of AIDs patients to track and keep health records (Limits on Confidentiality, n.d.). To overcome the challenges that may arise after disclosing this information, other parties besides the health bodies should not have access to this confidential data. Legal and ethical factors also call for physicians to treat the patients without discriminating against their health status (Lin & Liang, 2005). Besides, the legal policies call for the protection of health providers and the public to prevent the spread of the disease (Lin & Liang, 2005). Additionally, physicians should establish good relationships and bonds with the patients for easy treatment administration (Lin & Liang, 2005). They should take inquire about the patient’s health and provide regular reporting.


Limits on Confidentiality. Limits on Confidentiality. Retrieved 25 May 2022, from

Lin, L., & Liang, B. (2005). HIV and Health Law: Striking the Balance between Legal Mandates and Medical Ethics. AMA Journal Of Ethics. Retrieved 25 May 2022, from

Discussion Four

Healthcare professionals require health care liability insurance to protect them in case of losses and damages. A nurse practitioner must be insured to provide coverage in case of tragedies that may arise out of their practice. A nurse practitioner’s professional liability insurance/ CM&F is suitable for the nurses’ needs. CM&F protects the nurses’ assets, licenses, and reputations at their workplace, insuring them against significant losses (CM&F Group, n.d.). It is the best liability insurance for the nurses because it provides 24/7 coverage by utilizing technology and innovation to serve all nurses’ needs and targets all services within their scope (CM&F Group, n.d.). Besides, CM&F offers excellent insurance services in the U.S. CM&F enables nurses to enjoy a comprehensive insurance coverage of up to 2 million in each case, total consent, telehealth insurance coverage, license coverage and other general insurance liability services (CM&F Group, n.d.). All nurses should register to get started with CM&F insurance coverage. Nurses provide primary and specialty services in a healthcare service such as diagnosing a patient, undertaking laboratory tests, and prescribing medicines to the patients. Nurses also coordinate and manage various health care problems, among other duties. While carrying out these tasks in the hospital, they encounter health risks calling for the need for healthcare liability insurance. Getting insured protects the nurses from daily health risks they encounter when providing care to the patients.


CM&F Group. Nurse Practitioner Professional Liability Insurance. CM&F Group. Retrieved 25 May 2022, from