Phases of Dynamic Skills

Application of Force

The body is a comprehensive model containing a large number of interconnected elements. The intellect that manages the body is not contained in any single component but comes through the intricate exchanges of many elements. Certain prerequisites must be met to achieve a greater standard of achievement in courts and field games. Athletes must have a decent degree of various talents and capabilities. Additionally, a player’s location on the pitch, performing style, and the special requirements of the activity could all impact the elements they must deal with. Motion is unquestionably an important aspect of plenty of sports (Wong et al., 2020). Velocity, maximal speed, and flexibility are the three types of flow velocity. The focus on flow velocity and the ability to shift swiftly in a different direction could offer a physiological and strategic edge over the adversary, which is especially essential in sports like soccer, volleyball, tennis, and rugby. In a sporting activity like tennis, both the coach and the player need to understand the biomechanics behind how the body starts moving, stops, and changes direction.

Sporting biomechanics is a comprehensive examination of sports motions to reduce the risk of damage and increase exercise capacity. Sports biomechanics is the branch of study dealing with the kinematics of body posture. It is the characterization, thorough study, and evaluation of movement patterns throughout sports participation. Biomechanics is a branch of science dealing with the explanation of kinetic and the factors which move (Wong et al., 2020). Sports biomechanics is otherwise the discipline of describing how or why the person’s body performs the way it does. That term is frequently broadened during physical activity to include the connection between the player and their gear and surroundings (Colomar et al., 2020).


Tennis kinematics is a difficult challenge. Think about striking a tennis ball. Initially, the sportsman must watch the ball leave their opposition’s racket. Next, in approval to progress, players must assess the tennis ball’s velocity, spin, elevation, and, most critically, orientation. The athlete must swiftly shift their body posture to maneuver around the ball. The person is in movement as the player approaches to strike the ball. The ball travels in a straight and circular path if the ball has spun and the bat is in movement. The player should synchronize all of these motions in less than a half-second to make contact with the ball as near the center of the racket as possible and create the correct spin, velocity, and trajectory for the ball’s rebound. A misunderstanding can cause a failure in each of these motions.

Tennis is now regarded as a rapid, aggressive, and highly interactive sport. Strong, striking velocities, particularly in the serves, may determine the match and closely connected to the tennis player’s skill. Because of the possibility of dominating, this move has now been regarded as the most significant stroke. Both feet and ankle are part of a complicated plan that incorporates 26 bones, 33 locations, and over 100 muscles, tissues, and tissues (Colomar et al., 2020). It may operate as a rigid framework for weight carrying and an adaptable for conforming to rough ground. The leg and Achilles tendons perform various duties such as assisting body mass, supplying balance, vibration damping, transporting ground tensile stresses, and simply replacing functional ability in individuals with orthopedic arthroplasty (Wang et al., 2018). These are critical when participating in either workout or athletics encompassing the lower body.

Throughout all tennis swings, muscles generate thrust to spin parts of the body. Internal rotations of the right forearm in the service activity are the consequence of a subtalar joint tension at the shoulder complex induced by muscular activities – deltoids and sections of the subscapular and biceps (Colomar et al., 2020). A player should normally exert greater muscular force to spin a section with greater force. A force is a thrust or pulls that alters a body region’s movement or the racket. Movement is produced and modulated by the forces’ activities – primarily muscular pressures and environmental stimuli from the surroundings. A torsion or instant of pressure occurs whenever a force spins a bodily piece or the racket. Being a sporting human, the primary mode of motion is ambulation, which means walking upright and relying heavily on the legs to propel the body forward. There has been great disagreement and dispute about how the foot touches the floor and its impact on the lower extremities, especially the knees, thighs, hip, and back muscles, in the past few years. Lower extremity biomechanical pertains to the intricate interaction of the bones, muscles, and central nervous that culminates in a specific sequencing of movement (Wang et al., 2018).  Most of the dispute revolves around what is deemed normal and abnormal in biomechanics terminology and the amount to which we must act if abnormal findings are discovered during the evaluation.

Newton’s Three Laws of Motion explain how different forces throughout sports cause movement. The rules are commonly called Laws of Inertia, Acceleration, and finally Reaction law. According to Newton’s First Law of Inertia, things generally oppose alterations in their direction of equilibrium. Except if subjected to a disturbance, an item in movement should usually continue in movement, as well as a state of rest will typically stay still. A player’s physique would likely want to keep that movement until physical efforts could counteract this inertia. A player’s ball will remain at the same velocity in the same position until an applied force acts. Newton’s Second Law exactly describes the amount of motion caused by force. An item’s momentum or propensity to alter the direction of movement that it feels is relative to the quantity of the pressure and indirectly correlated to the item’s mass (Colomar et al., 2020). Whenever a ball is in the air, booted, or smacked with an object, it has to go in the presence of an applied force’s direction of motion. Likewise, the larger the pressure level used, the faster the ball.

When players gain leg muscles despite retaining the same body weight, they would have a greater capacity to propel the torso to use the legs, leading to higher speed and quickness. According to the Third Law, there seems to be opposing force energy with every activity. It indicates that impulses do not operate in isolation but instead in equivalent and opposing pairs among contacting objects. The force exerted by the feet pressing against the floor generates earth forces that allow the player to travel throughout the field (Fett et al., 2020). Because the Earth is significantly larger than the player, the person speeds and quickly moves, while the Earth does not speed or travel. This activity also happens upon ball contact. Even as an equivalent balances force given to the ball but opposite delivered to the racket.

The Center of Gravity is only an imaginary place in space where weight is spread evenly. Since the body sections may transfer their weights with articulation revolutions, the entire body’s COG may shift. The idea is essential for understanding strength and control and how COG affects sporting activities.  COG passes via the object in a negative motion, for the Earth’s core, and via the COG. This pivot point is critical to understand and visualize when assessing a player’s function of maintaining equilibrium. Whenever the COG changes on the Supporter, a response is needed to stabilize. The gravity of a tennis racket is a much more straightforward technique to determine (Colomar et al., 2020). It is commonly obtained by pinpointing where the racket rests on a fingertip or similar thin item.

Proper biomechanics allows for effective movement and might even lessen the chance of damage. It is recommended to analyze abnormal or improper biomechanics as a recognized triggering factor in sports. Morphological and functional concerns could cause these abnormal biomechanics. Anatomical concerns like hip joint discrepancies may never be rectified, but indirect effects such as shoe buildup or orthotics could be. Muscles disparities following an extended duration of immobility are instances of errors that may develop. Motor skills comprise human motions caused by a complicated network of the muscular system. For a better outcome in sporting activities, a player should be coached on utilizing them well.


Colomar, J., Baiget, E., & Corbi, F. (2020). Influence of Strength, Power, and Muscular Stiffness on Stroke Velocity in Junior Tennis Players. Frontiers in Physiology, 11.

Fett, J., Ulbricht, A., & Ferrauti, A. (2020). Impact of physical performance and anthropometric characteristics on serve velocity in elite junior tennis players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 34(1), 192–202.

Wang, M., Fu, L., Gu, Y., Mei, Q., Fu, F., & Fernandez, J. (2018). Comparative study of kinematics and muscle activity between elite and amateur table tennis players during topspin loop against backspin movements. Journal of Human Kinetics, 64(1), 25–33.

Wong, D. W.-C., Lee, W. C.-C., & Lam, W.-K. (2020). Biomechanics of table tennis: A systematic scoping review of playing levels and maneuvers. Applied Sciences, 10(15), 5203.