RNA Interference in Cancer Therapy

RNA interference (RNAi) is a regulatory system that serves to inhibit the expression of specific genes. This system has been highly adopted for cancer treatment due to cancerous cells’ rapid growth and failure to detect the cells early. The system has been applied to patients showing signs of ovarian cancer.

This study targeted and conducted tests on women since only they can have ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer was chosen because it is a major crisis for well-being and reproduction for women – it is difficult to detect early and resistant to pharmacological interventions. These tests were relevant and critical for women since the mortality rate of ovarian cancer is high, and new prevention methods ought to be devised. The study cites that nearly 220,000 women are diagnosed with ovarian cancer, in which about 140 000 of them die annually. Hence, it was imperative to target this type of cancer.  

The most common type of RNA used in inhibiting cancer cells is Micro RNAs (miRNAs). Studies have shown that it can inhibit the expression of ovarian, causing cells than normal tissues. This makes the miRNAs fit for diagnosing and treating ovarian cancer. The ovary is controlled by many hormones, such as gonadotropins, estrogen, and progesterone. These hormones produce proteins that may be harmful to the body. The application of miRNAs, in this case, is useful in regulating the expression of proteins. Failure to regulate the proteins might lead to ovarian cancer, various diseases, and infertility.

The major cause of death in patients with ovarian cancer is peritoneal metastasis, and its association with miRNAs has been studied. It was found that the integrin α5 receptor increased the cancer cells and prompted metastasis. A type of miRNAs known as miR-92a suppressed the integrin α5 receptor and peritoneal metastasis. Hence, the application of the miR-92a reduces the chances of death in the patients.  The study also indicates that using the miRNAs arrays can improve the detection of cancer type, stage, and treatment.