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Please provide replies to the below three (3) discussion board posts (90 word minimum for each). (275 words = one page)

The textbook (see Chapter 2) (see below link).

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The posts are in reference to the below:

Think about a behavior you have observed among fellow students [from any course].

(Please note the below are examples…must come up with original idea / behavior).

  • Identify a theory [skim through the text for ideas!] that may explain this behavior.
  • Discuss how this theory describes the behavior? How can students be more specific in describing a behavior? For example, if a student observes that men and women listen to music “differently,” ask for a more detailed explanation of what is meant by “differently” (e.g., different types of music, different volume, use of earphones versus speakers).
  • Does the theory explain why a behavior occurs? If a student states that women are more likely to wear earbuds to listen to music, while men are more likely to use headphones, ask why might this be. What is it that might make women prefer earbuds (e.g., better fit for smaller ears, does not interfere with hairstyles)?
  • Does the theory help predict what someone might do? For example, if I own an electronics store, how might this theory help me decide what types of inventory to carry if a lot of women shop there? 

Reply 1 (JC)

For this discussion, I would like to implore the concept of justice theories, which in I/O Psychology has been discussed and explored in many ways and gave birth to different types of justice (e.g. distributive justice, procedural justice, etc).

One work that has caught my attention is by Honneth (2004) who geared away from explaining justice based on existing literature and outlined a “plural” theory of justice where, in a nutshell, explains how justice must be viewed in a recognition-theoretical concept – where feelings of affection, equal treatment, and social esteem are key to obtaining a personal identity.

While the theory is at play in more subtle ways in real life, this perfectly explains why so many of us are so driven to attain good grades as we tend to associate this with long term success, thus fulfilling our social esteem and affection needs. On the other hand, when we feel like we are being treated unfairly by fellow classmates or the professor, we tend to get frustrated – and even aggressive – as this all boils down to the formation of our personal identity. 


Axel Honneth. “Recognition and Justice: Outline of a Plural Theory of Justice.” Acta Sociologica, vol. 47, no. 4, Sage Publications, 2004, pp. 351–64, doi:10.1177/0001699304048668.

Hi JC,

I like your approach; it has provided new insight into the application of justice theories. I agree with you that we are prone to frustrations when mistreated. The distributive justice approach explains the need for fairness in all social contexts like workplaces and even in school. Besides, we are working hard in school and work because we believe it will pay off. Levy (2017) explains this approach as that the extent of motivation is dependent on its perceived fairness. This theory – procedural justice explains why many of us strive for higher grades and even more academic qualifications. We believe the process will determine our success.


Levy, P. (2017). Industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

Reply 2 (AA)

The idea that college students tend to have more liberal, left-wing political views after completing undergraduate studies is no secret.  Personally, I believe that this is a generalization that is true.  Young adults who graduate high school are more susceptible to parental influence regarding their political affiliation. Generally, when attending a diverse college, students socialize with peers from different socio-economic backgrounds, take progressive college courses and, sometimes, their political views change as a result.   

The Interfaith Diversity Experiences and Attitudes Longitudinal Survey (IDEALS) conducted a study in 2020 regarding college students and faculty members’ political identifications. According to IDEALS, 47 percent of students reported that they had changed their political leanings during college. Of those, 30 percent said they became more liberal, and 17 percent said they became more conservative (Inside Higher ED, 2020). The theory that students’ political views can change post-college studies can be attributed to many reasons. According to this study, one of the major contributing factors is the political affiliations of professors throughout the student’s college career and the political climate at the time.  

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Factoring in the different variables presented in the study (political climate, faculty ideals and college campus diversity), the theory that college students are likely to change their political affiliation while in school could help predict their future political affiliations – like whether they would vote Democrat or Republican in an upcoming election.  Surely, this would make college students a target audience for political campaigns.  


Some students do feel political pressure from their professors, but few change their views. (n.d.). Retrieved February 11, 2021, from 

Hi AA,

Sorry, I must admit that I did not quite identify which theory you are explaining. However, I quite understand the behaviour you have observed. Also, I agree with you that we change behavior and perception of situations with time in our lives. I think that Learning Theory best explains this context. It concerns how students acquire, retain, and use information. The learning process is often “active,” meaning that the learner is engaged in activities that change their perceptions (Levy, 2017). I agree with you that association with parents and educators is among the factors that change students’ political views and affiliation.


Levy, P. (2017). Industrial/organizational psychology (5th ed.). New York: Worth Publishers.

Reply 3 (LL)

  •  I had many reservations about this question … However, I must identify a classmate, right?
  • As a bilingual student, I face many challenges, especially when it comes to writing or providing analytical answers. I work very hard to understand the context of the textbook, understand the questions that the teacher asks me, which makes me very nervous, insecure, and sometimes doubtful of my abilities, but I still strive to give my best in every lesson. I have noticed not one but several colleagues who can give their best because they are fully equipped, and English is their first language. However, this one student always seems to get off-topic, and his answers are always longer and a bit out of context. He writes very well and appears to be very organized and even presents more detail in his responses than many of us. I think what I have observed about him is that he plays his role as an intellectual person, although his answers are not necessarily logical, of course, he can give a great projection, he also has a gift of conviction at the time of writing his answers, even if the answers are not exactly valid. Although maybe they are, when I finally make a comparison of his work and my, I realize that he has the ability and the advantage to produce a better quality of work than me, he should be more precise instead. Perhaps even when people have the upper hand, they tend to look for ways to deceive, or maybe they know that putting on their best face will bring great results 
  • Utilizing the Naturalistic observation method. I can identify two different theories that fit my classmate’s behavior…One of them Work motivation theory and the second one is the expectancy theory… I could incorporate both theories to explain his behavior. I feel that both theories have a set of taxonomy that explain his behavior and help understand and draw my conclusion.  However, I will focus on the Expectancy theory motivated by anticipated results or consequences. Vroom proposed that a person decides to behave in a certain way based on the expected result of the chosen behavior (Victor Vroom). This theory explains why my classmate is extra organized despite the context of his answers. The graduate program expects us to conduct, behave and adhere to a code of conduct, I believe that my classmate understands this and put forward his best effort to make look and sound good as he is motivated by the result which is to pass this class and ultimately obtain a Master degree. And in the hood way (fake it into your make) 😊


Levy, P. E. (2017). Industrial/organizational psychology: understanding the workplace. New York: Worth Publishers/Macmillan Learning.

Hi LL,

Your post is very exciting, and I think you have answered all the prompts as requested. Also, I agree with you that the Expectancy Theory explains your classmate’s behavior. For instance, all students arguably want to score good grades in their exams. That is why we spend sleepless nights on coursework and in fact, the reason we are doing this forum. According to Victor Vroom, the expectation for the work we put in our courses determines our motivation. In this context, the classmate is highly motivated to achieve excellent grades, which has led him to give unprecise yet organized responses.