Racial Discrimination

Racism and ethnic bias frequently result in discrimination against disadvantaged ethnicities in a particular society. Discrimination in this sense means the unjustified denial of these people’s rights, advantages, and opportunities (Putnam-Hornstein et al., 2022). The adjective stresses that certain groups are judged unequally not due to a lack of competence but their ethnicity and race. Administrative discrimination due to race is often motivated by prejudices, as was undoubtedly the case in the South all through segregation. Just as people can exclude without being biased, institutions might want as well when they participate in actions that appear to be ethnically impartial but have a discriminating effect. Persons in institutions may also discriminate unknowingly. They make judgments that, upon closer examination, turn out to be discriminatory towards persons of color, although they did not intend to do so.

Any harassment of pupils due to race, ethnicity, or origin is considered racism in education. Discrimination may occur at any age, from kindergarten to college, and it can be perpetrated by instructors, administration, other members of staff, or other learners. The most prevalent form of teacher prejudice is in-class punishment. Many documented examples include a teacher disciplining a specific student aggressively because the kid is a member of a minority group. Other forms of teacher-related bias include unfair grading and accepting racial bias from other learners in the class. Authorities in middle and high school institutions may over-penalize minority kids. Harassment by students is the most widespread type of unequal racial treatment. “Racially motivated physical damage, racist profanities scribbled on classroom walls and planned hate actions directed at children,” according to the Civil Rights office (Putnam-Hornstein et al., 2022). 

Structural racism has resulted in the perpetuation of racial differences in various economic Indicators. The most dramatic differences may be seen in metrics in terms of household income, reflecting years of white advantage that has caused establishing economic balance, especially difficult for persons of color (Kline et al., 2021). The USA will become a “majority-minority” nation by the 21st century. If one wants to maintain a healthy middle class, boosting the economic well-being of homes of color will be even more important than it is now. Closing the continuing “wealth difference” between white and minority households has to become a focus for wider economic development. Gary S. Becker, a Chicago University economics analyst, and Nobel winner, suggested that discriminatory businesses against employing minorities damage themselves by passing on outstanding persons (Kline et al., 2021). “Redlining,” a Federal Housing Control policy that denied guaranteed mortgages in Black communities, kept Black Americans out from one of the most frequent pathways for wealth accumulation: property ownership.


Many of those from the minority groups indicate that they have been denied service or get terrible service in businesses or restaurants. Others say they have been arrested by the police and even placed in dread of their lives simply because they are black. These examples reflect the wider racism that pervades American culture. Even though the law is essential in drastically expanding Black voter lists, notably in the southern United States, just 1% of all elected leaders in the country are Black. In 2017 ethnic and racial prejudices in law and enforcement remained, especially harming Black and Hispanic persons. According to census data, billions of dollars in federal grants are distributed to states each year (Putnam-Hornstein et al., 2022). Ever since the 1990s, it has been reported how Black and Indigenous residents living on reserves are far more prone to be misreported in the enumeration. This impacts how municipal and state electoral districts are established and even the supply of state financing available for services like schooling, shelter, and health care.

Thoughts, debates, hypotheses, theoretical constructs, and descriptive hypotheses on how and why human cultures, features, or systems of such communities—structure, evolve, and grow as time passes, or perish, are social theories. According to the functionalist concept, racial minorities must integrate into society for culture and racial interactions to effectively add to society’s harmonious behavior and stabilization. Assimilation refers to how a minority gets socially, culturally, and economically integrated into the majority community. According to the assimilation concept, to become complete parts of society, minority people must absorb as much of the majority system of values as possible, notably its speech, mannerisms, and achievement objectives, and therefore abandon much of their own identity (Putnam-Hornstein et al., 2022). This should not be the way because everyone has a right to their own identity.

The government should find a way to include people from the minority groups in their systems by offering them equal employment opportunities, accepting their views on societal matters, ensuring equality in schools enacting laws that protect against discrimination, and offering housing opportunities (Kline et al., 2021). Truth in the census reports should be told to ensure funding goes to those who need it the most. In conclusion, everyone should treat their neighbor or colleague with the respect they deserve, not based on the color of their skin. Government entities must make the best use of our country’s talent by encouraging environments that offer fairness and opportunities for people to reach their full potential.

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Kline, P. M., Rose, E. K., & Walters, C. R. (2021). Systemic Discrimination Among Large U.S. Employers (Working Paper No. 29053; Working Paper Series). National Bureau of Economic Research. https://doi.org/10.3386/w29053

Putnam-Hornstein, E., Prindle, J. J., & Rebbe, R. (2022). Community disadvantage, family socioeconomic status, and racial/ethnic differences in maltreatment reporting risk during infancy. Child Abuse & Neglect, 105446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2021.105446