Organ Systems.

The human body is made up of many organ systems joined in a structural unit to serve a common purpose. Professor (20) notes that these organ systems work together as a single unit to ensure that the body functions properly. In their work back in 2015, Bartsch et al. (e0142143) argue that the body has approximately eleven body systems. Examples of systems include cardiovascular, reproductive, lymphatic, endocrine, urinary, respiratory, and muscular. There are many organ systems; however, this discussion will only focus on the circulatory/cardiovascular system. This system comprises of the heart, the blood vessel (arteries, capillaries, and veins) and the blood itself (Firth et al. 22). The heart is the body’s transport system moving materials to and from all the body (Professor 22). Bartsch et al. (e0142143), in their work, points out that the primary purpose of the heart is transport. However, the system also equalizes body temperature.  The materials transported by the heart are in the nature of nutrients from the digestive system, oxygen from the lungs, hormones produced by glands in the endocrine system, and waste materials excreted by body cells. Each of the cardiovascular system components plays a distinct role in enabling the smooth functioning of the system, as discussed below.

The heart is a muscular organ, almost the size of a fist that lies left to the middle of the chest. The heart has the main role of pumping blood through blood vessels to all parts of the body (Firth et al. 16). This is made possible through successive rhythmic contractions of the cardiac muscles found in the heart. The heart has two sides and four chambers. The right side has two chambers that are an atrium on top and ventricle below it, with the left-hand side having the same division. Blood flows into the left atria from the lungs while the right atria receive blood from various body systems. The right ventricle, on the other hand, pumps blood to the lungs for to get oxygenated. On the other hand, the left ventricle, pumps the blood to the whole body (Proffessor 13).  

Apart from the heart, there are blood vessels which are tubes that ferry blood. The three main blood vessels include the veins, arteries, and capillaries. The transportation of the blood from the heart to body is facilitated by the arteries. The veins another part of the cardiovascular system transports the blood to the heart from the body (Naik et al. 1). Capillaries, on the other hand, are the smallest blood vessels connecting arteries and veins. Lastly, the blood refers to the fluid that transport oxygen and essential nutrients to body cells. The blood also carries way carbon dioxide among other waste products from the body (Proffessor 2). The heart pumps blood to all parts of the body which later returns to the heart for a repeat process. Blood also helps repair body tissues, defend the body against infections, and control the body PH, among other functions. The blood consist of a fluid part called plasma with dissolved substance and blood cells. These cells are classified into three comprising red blood cells, platelets and the white blood cells.

free essay typer



The circulatory system consists of the two circulations, namely, the systemic circulation and the pulmonary circulation (Naik 2). Pulmonary circulation requires the participation the heart, the lungs, and the major blood vessels connecting the two. The heart pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs to receive oxygen. It then flows back to the heart before it’s pumped to the other parts of the body (Naik 19). The systemic circulation, on the other hand, depicts how blood moves to and from all the body tissues, providing oxygen and nutrients to the tissues while at the same time, collecting waste materials released by the tissues. This system encompasses the heart and blood vessels facilitating flow of the cells’ metabolic needs in the whole body (Firth et al. 18).

Cardiovascular conditions refer to the type of diseases that involves the circulatory system affecting the structures or function of the heart or blood vessels. The list includes diseases of arteries that supply blood to the brain, damaged coronary arteries facilitating the supply of oxygen to heart muscles, and diseases affecting peripheral arteries transporting blood to the whole body (Naik et al. 22: Cannon  et al. 34).  Examples of these diseases are discussed below;

High Blood Pressure (HBP)

       Also referred to as hypertension, HBP is a medical condition where blood pressure in the arteries is persistently higher than the average pressure. HBP is prevalent among people aged sixty-five years and above. The leading causes include a combination of genetics and lifestyle being practiced. Some of the symptoms include pulsating headaches behind the eyes, disturbing levels of consciousness, chest pains, and shortness of breath (Firth et al. 82). There is no universal treatment for hypertension. However, doctors can help maintain pressure at safe levels through medicine and advice on lifestyle changes. People aged 65 and above are at a high risk of hypertension (Bartsch et al. e0142143).


Atherosclerosis is a condition that occurs when artery walls thicken and become stiff due to the buildup of plaques inside arteries. Plaque buildup causes lumen of arteries to narrow down hence interfering with smooth flow blood. In most cases, plaques start to form in arteries during childhood and progress overtime (Bartsch et al. e0142143). This condition’s symptoms include chest pain or pressure (angina), shortness of breath, fatigue, and muscle weaknesses. Atherosclerosis treatment often includes a change of lifestyle and medication to help reduce cholesterol, risk of blood clot formation, and control blood pressure (Firth et al. 13).


Arrhythmia involves an abnormal heartbeat—a shift from the typical pattern of electrical impulses. The heart may beat very quickly, so slowly or in an erratic manner. Such may occur when cells in the heart’s conduction system fire automatically to generate electrical activity, interrupting normal pumping of the heart (Firth et al. 72). The condition’s symptoms may include rapid heartbeat, fatigue or weakness, fainting and near fainting episodes, and anxiety. Treatment can be done by taking medication and regular checks to monitor the heartbeat. This disease cuts across all ages but prevalent among people aged 60 and above (Bartsch et al. e0142143).

Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD)

PAD involves the narrowing of arteries other than those that supply blood to the brain or heart. It occurs as a result of atherosclerosis (Cannon et al. 16). PAD’s main predisposing factor is smoking and high blood cholesterol, and its symptoms include bluish skin, cold skin, and skin ulcers, among others. The treatment process involves the diagnosis and management of underlying atherosclerosis. On other occasions, surgery may be recommended to expand affected arteries and remove blockages (Naik 20).


In summary, the human body is composed of various organ systems joined to serve a common purpose. As argued earlier, the body has approximately eleven body system that effectively contributes to effective body functioning. The cardiovascular system is critical in the body, where it works as a transport system. Through this body system, the body transports various materials, including nutrients from the digestive system, oxygen from the lungs, hormones produced by glands in the endocrine system, and waste materials excreted by cells throughout the body. This body system also assists in equalizing the body temperature.   Various diseases that attack this system, as discussed earlier, include PAD, HBP, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia.

Works Cited

Bartsch, Ronny P. et al. “Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact”. PLOS ONE, vol 10, no. 11, 2015, p. e0142143. Public Library of Science (Plos), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0142143. Accessed 21 Aug 2020.

Cannon, C., Toth, P. Comprehensive Cardiovascular Medicine in the Primary Care Setting. Germany, Springer International Publishing, 2018.

Firth, John and Dwight, Jeremy. Oxford Textbook of Medicine: Cardiovascular Disorders. United Kingdom, Oxford University Press, 2016.

Naik, Nitish. Tandon’s Textbook of Cardiology. India, Wolters Kluwer, 2019.

Professor, Baby. Bones in the Human Body! Anatomy Book for Kids. United Kingdom, Speedy Publishing LLC, 2017.