Narrative Literature Review

Citation (APA format, but use only first author et al.)Research Question(s), Hypotheses, Aim, or PurposeStudy DesignSample and SettingIntervention or Treatment (Independent Variable)Outcome (Dependent Variable)ResultsLevel of Evidence
Cénat, J. M., Blais-Rochette, C., Kokou-Kpolou, C. K., Noorishad, P.-G., Mukunzi, J. N., McIntee, S.-E., Dalexis, R. D., Goulet, M.-A., & Labelle, P. R. (2021). Prevalence of symptoms of depression, anxiety, insomnia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and psychological distress among populations affected by the COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 295, 113599.  The conducted systematic review and meta-analysis assessed the prevalence rate of COVID-19-related stress, anxiousness, sleeplessness, PTSD, and emotional stress (PD) in affected persons.Medline, Embase, APA PsycInfo, Scopus, CINAHL, and Web of Science were all searched for articles.A sum of 2189 papers were reviewed, with 136 full-text journals deemed eligible (Cénat et al., 2021).The heterogeneity within the studies was accounted for through independent variables for meta-analyses.The aggregated rate of depression among individuals is 15.97% CI 95 % [13.24%; 19.13%]. The aggregated cause of anxiety among individuals is 15.15 percent [12.29 %; 18.54 %]. The aggregated rate of insomnia among individuals is 23.87 % [15.74]Out of the total publications, fifty-five peer-reviewed research findings (N=189,159) met the meta-inclusion analysis’s criteria. Depression was found in 15.97% of the population (k=46) (95 percent CI, 13.24-19.13). Anxiety was found in 15.15 percent of the population (k=54) (95 percent CI, 12.29-18.54).Critical Appraisal (Meta-Analysis)
Dean, J., & Keshavan, M. (2017). The neurobiology of depression: An integrated view. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 27, 101–111.  Depressive disorder is a chronic, recurrent illness that is linked with significant impairment and death. It is neurological in nature and is linked to structural and functional brain disorders.The information presented here was derived mostly from meta-analyses, randomized clinical experiments, critical review publications, and animal research.PET scans have revealed anomalies in regional cerebral blood circulation and gluconeogenesis in a number of prefrontal cortex and limbic regions involved in emotional perception.Use of Antidepressant medications to enhance brain-derived neurotrophin, boosting neuronal development and activity while also modulating relationships across neurocircuit architectural elements.The depressive disorder has its aetiopathogenesis influenced by genetic susceptibility and stress (Dean & Keshavan, 2017). In depressed individuals, disruption of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis lowers hippocampus volumes and prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity and impairs equilibrium.Prospective studies that have examined the interplay between brain functions and framework in response to stress and recognized pertinent genes, as well as how these may be impacted by fluoxetine treatment programs and the long-term direction of depressive episodes, would help understand their pivotal role in the pathogenesis of this ailment.Critical Appraisal (Meta-Analysis)
Deng, J., Zhou, F., Hou, W., Silver, Z., Wong, C. Y., Chang, O., Huang, E., & Zuo, Q. K. (2021). The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances in COVID-19 patients: A meta-analysis. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1486(1), 90–111.  The goal of this comprehensive study and meta-analysis was to assess the frequency of depression, stress, and sleep disorders in COVID19 patients.From 2019 to August 18, 2020, the research team searched the following databases for relevant studies: EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, PubMed, and Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL).The systematic review selected studies that met the criteria involving patients with COVID19, and documented the incidence of depression, stress, or sleep problems.Data extraction was conducted separately and in sequence by eight assessors (J.D., F.Z., W.H., Z.S., C.Y.W., O.C., E.H., and Q.K.Z.). The study made use of an a priori constructed consistent data collection form.The rate of mental, anxiety, and sleep problems was measured using clinical assessments or self and clinicianrated screening equipment in this comprehensive study (Deng et al., 2021).According to the meta-regression analysis, there were no strong relation among the pooled melancholy occurrence and the % male participation (P = 0.31) or mean age (P = 0.95).Critical Appraisal (Meta-Analysis)
Singh, D. N. (2021). Mind’s Secrets to Unleash Limitless Living: An Ultimate Guide to Overcome Your Mental & Emotional Blockages & Heal Your Life to Live Happy, Joyful, Healthy and Successful life. Shashwat Publication.  Objective: Learn How to Unlock Your Mind’s Limitless Potential, Avoid Faulty Thinking, Increase Brain Power, and Improve the Life quality.Accessing techniques used by experts to unlock the full power of their intellect and devoting precious time with family, colleagues, and dear ones by making quicker and better selections.200 people attending a seminer on mental and physical healthTapping to the subconscious mind helps one go beyond the unknown.Discover unexpected information on how “Memory Athletes” protect themselves from interruptions (Singh, 2021).Most people indicated that their self-esteem proved the image of their personal value.Critically Appraised Literature (Evidence-based Practice Guidelines)
Kahlon, M. K., Aksan, N., Aubrey, R., Clark, N., Cowley-Morillo, M., Jacobs, E. A., Mundhenk, R., Sebastian, K. R., & Tomlinson, S. (2021). Effect of Layperson-Delivered, Empathy-Focused Program of Telephone Calls on Loneliness, Depression, and Anxiety Among Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Psychiatry, 78(6), 616–622. see if a common person or empathetic phone call program could significantly reduce solitude, depressed mood, and anxiousness in at-risk grownups.At enrolment and after 4 weeks, validated questionnaires were used to assess isolation, sadness, and anxiety.Intention-to-treat analyses were done. Clients of Meals on Wheels Central Texas (MOWCTX) got calls in their houses or anywhere they were at the time.Sixteen callers, ranging in age from 17 to 23, were temporarily educated in sympathetic conversational strategies   (Kahlon et al., 2021).Loneliness was the primary result (range 3-9; 3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale, and 6-item De Jong Giervald Loneliness Scale, range 0-6).The 240 participants ranged in age from 27 to 101 years, with 63 percent being over 65 (n = 149 of 232), 56 percent living alone (n = 135 of 240), and 79 percent being women (n = 190 of 240).Experimental studies (Randomized Controlled Trials)
Luo, M., Guo, L., Yu, M., Jiang, W., & Wang, H. (2020). The psychological and mental impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on medical staff and general public – A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychiatry Research, 291, 113190.  Hypothesis: The coronavirus infection 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a huge psychological effect over the globe.The study used the Preferred reporting criteria for systematic studies and meta-analyses guideline to conduct a comprehensive study and meta-analysis on studies assessing the emotional and physiological impact of COVID-19.The study selected research work of statistical studies assessing COVID-19-related psychological suffering among medical professionals, the public at large, and individuals with pre-existing problems or afflicted with COVID-19.The appraisal tool evaluated the study design, recruiting technique, reliability and validity, and outcome assessment dependability (Luo et al., 2020).Using STATA’s Metaprop module, the prevalence rate and 95% confidence level of mental trauma were pooled with random effect model modelling.The initial search yielded 9207 articles from three datasets (Embase: 1287; PubMed: 1823; WHO COVID-19: 1217; Google Scholar: 4880). Among these papers, 3514 were removed owing to duplications, while 5613 were removed resulting from exposure or outcome being irrelevant to the current study.Critical Appraisal (Systematic Reviews)