Julia Balogun and Veronica Hope-Hailey’s (2004) model includes four types of change that combine into four strategies. The following figure illustrates these different types that are organized on two axes: “nature of change” on the vertical axis and “end result” on the horizontal axis. The two classifications of change under the “nature of change” are incremental and big bang (a sudden change that occurs “all at once”). The change can be significant in size, scope, and impact, depending on the particular situation.

The other two classifications of change under the “end result” perspective include transformation and realignment. Transformational change, as discussed previously, has a significant impact on organizations, including their culture, people, and systems. Realignment types of change do not generally entail a fundamental reassessment of the central assumptions and beliefs in an organization’s culture. Still, a major restructuring, for example, can have a large impact on an organization (Balogun, 2001).

The four strategies that leaders and managers can use when estimating the nature of their change and the desired end result are:

1. Evolution: When the change is incremental but transformation is the result. This strategy suggests proceeding in a progressive way by also analyzing both the internal and external environments while implementing the change. Implementing a new software system in a division over a two-year period is such an example.


2. Adaptation: When the change is also incremental and the end result is realignment. This is the least intrusive impact on the organization and the most commonly used. Installing software applications, revising job descriptions, and including online training are examples.

3. Revolution: When the change is big bang and transformational. An example might be a company that is bought by another parent firm and the new owner requests the present leaders and managers to change the vision and mission and then replace a majority of the workforce.

4. Reconstruction: When the change is big bang combined with realignment. The organization may experience turmoil as in a turnaround or large expansion, and the basic business model may remain intact. The final three types of change and change processes we discuss are: proactive versus reactive changes, strategic versus tactical, and Tichy’s change matrix.