Managerial Organization Behavior

Essay 1

Intrinsic motivation fundamentally involves spontaneous exploration and curiosity, a significant aspect of developmental psychology. The motivation is based on undertaking an inherently enjoyable activity devoid of external rewards. Research indicates that extrinsic conditions to the activity, including rewards, evaluation, and restricted choice, negatively influence intrinsic creative behavior (Ryan & Deci, 2020). Intrinsic motivation determinates include competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Additionally, the motivation seeks to engage in challenging and interesting activities. On the other hand, extrinsic rewards can be grouped into four: external regulation, introjected, regulation, and integrated (Ryan & Deci, 2020). External regulation entails conducting an activity to satisfy an external demand or receive an external reward; introjected involves undertaking an activity under internal pressure to avoid failure. Regulation motivation is performing under minimal control by believing the objective is personal imperative, while integrated involves examining and performing the task by seeking compatible reason with personal values and need.

Essay 2

The primary motivation process involves identifying a need, setting an objective to achieve the need, and being rewarded for achieving the need. When the need is satisfied, the individual is relieved of tension. There are different needs theories, including Maslow, acquired needs theory, Herzberg, and ERG theory. (Abyad, 2018) Maslow’s theory, which is the most famous theory, is based on the premise that needs are fundamental to humans, ranked in order hierarchically, and without them, nothing else matters. ERG theory modifies Maslow’s five stages in the hierarchy into three categories: growth needs, relatedness needs, and existence needs. The acquired needs theory indicates that some needs are acquired from life experiences, while Herzberg’s theory groups factors affecting motivation into hygiene and motivators. Hygiene factors reduce motivation while motivators present motivation (Abyad, 2018). The expectancy theory indicates that employee motivation results from an individual desire to achieve a reward. The practical implication of the theory is that individuals change their level of effort depending on the value of the bonus they receive from the process.

Essay 3

Perception is an intellectual process that transforms sensory stimuli into relevant information. The process involves recognizing both the environmental stimuli and the action in response to stimuli. There are four types of perceptual distortion: stereotyping, halo effect, selective perception, and projection (Drenth et al., 2018). Stereotyping is specific gathering based entirely on enrollment of property or group characteristics, and selective perception happens when one selects what they deem or feel is correct, disregarding contradictive perspectives. Halo effects happen when single attribute occurs when a single attribute is used to develop an overall impression while projection is assigning personal attributes to others (Drenth et al., 2018). Social cognitive theory can be used to educate desirable behaviors through positive reinforcement.

Essay 4

Emotion affects individual beliefs about a job’s value, company, or team. Humans are emotional beings, and specific events in the job affect individuals differently. Emotions massively influence employees’ commitment, creativity, work quality, negotiations, leadership, and minimize turnover (McKenzie et al., 2019). Individual attitudes are a significant part of an individual’s identity and influence interaction in the workplace. If the employee’s attitude is aligned with the company’s values, the company is likely to achieve better results. When appropriately developed in alignment with the company values, positive attitudes lead to job satisfaction, job involvement, and commitment (Gweon, 2021). 

Essay 5

Diversity influences the organization by having multiple perspectives. Diversity allows mitigation of customers’ challenges, enhanced creativity, problem-solving in teams, and healthy competition that is beneficial for the organization (Gweon, 2021). Each individual has a particular perspective of the world. An organization that observes diversity empowers people to develop their talents, skills to learn and contribute to a more diverse collection of colleges. Nonetheless, the organizations must observe the right workers’ composition to prevent miscommunication, barriers creation, and dysfunctional adaptation behaviors.


In the personality development debate of nature-nurture, nature is biological, and other hereditary factors contribute to unique personal traits such as physical appearance. At the same time, nurture involves environmental variables that influence a person, including culture and social relationships.


Drenth, P. J., Thierry, H., & de Wolff, C. J. (2018). What is Work and Organizational Psychology?. In Handbook of work and organizational psychology (pp. 1-10). Psychology Press.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2020). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation from a self-determination theory perspective: Definitions, theory, practices, and future directions. Contemporary educational psychology61, 101860.

Abyad, A. (2018). Project management, motivation theories, and process management. Middle East Journal of Business13(4), 18-22.

Gweon, H. (2021). Inferential social learning: Cognitive foundations of human social learning and teaching. Trends in Cognitive Sciences25(10), 896-910.[

McKenzie, J., Olson, R. E., Patulny, R., Bellocchi, A., & Mills, K. A. (2019). Emotion management and solidarity in the workplace: A call for a new research agenda. The Sociological Review67(3), 672-688.