For this discussion, I choose the Kingston, Ontario community, which is mainly a residential area. The data is sourced from the Kingston 3 general population exposure station. From the station data, average ozone concentration (O3) is 39.0 ppb, with a peak concentration of about 68.4 ppb. The average ozone concentration compares favorably with the national average concentration, which is currently 63 ppb. The average fine particulate matter concentration (PM2.5) is 5.8 µg/m3 and peaks at 13.1 µg/m3. Like ozone concentration, the average particulate matter concentration compares favorably with the national average annual levels, which stands at 10.0 µg/m3. These values are the average computation of ozone and particulate matter concentration in ten years – from 2007 to 2016.
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The average concentrations at Kingston are generally constant for ten years. However, there are infinitesimal changes in national average ozone concentration for some years like 2012 when the average rose to 60.7 ppb and 2014 when the average dropped to 54.4ppb. That indicates somewhat unchanging residential factors that cause air pollution, such as vehicles and lighting smog. Concerning particulate matter; the average concentration increased from 6.1 µg/m3 in 2007 to 7.5 µg/m3in 2014 and then dropped to 6.4 µg/m3 in 2016.
Currently, Kingston has an Air quality index (AQI) of 1, meaning that the community has fairly clean air. However, the main pollutant in Kingston is Nitrogen (IV) Oxide, with an average concentration of 4.7 µg/m³. This is mainly from the combustion of fuels such as in vehicles and other petroleum engines.
Because of the clean air, and low pollution indices, Kingston is among the preferred places for many people to live in Canada. Ontario, in general, ranked first in the Maclean’s magazine ranking of best places to live in 2019. Hence, it has become a residential community with a population of 178,823 in 2019. It also hosts some of the best universities such as Queen’s University, the Royal Military College of Canada and St. Lawrence College.