Just-in-Time Journal Critique

Talking points, thesis, and argument

The article aims to improve data sharing between port systems and ships during piloting, allowing effective interoperability. The research problem arises from the increase of greenhouse emissions and unnecessary waiting time during the arrival of ships at the ports. The authors provide an overview of the processes and consequences of developing and implementing port activity applications. The Just-it-time approach is highlighted to comprehend the impact of digitizing seaports and maritime airports. The three pilot ports used include Rauma, Finland, Sweden, and  Gävle, which are used as pilot ports. The researchers develop a system of steps—by-steps actions to implement the just-in-time concept. The process includes comprehending the current situation, developing a business model necessary to implement an appropriate ICT solution, local government structure analysis, analysis of intermodal information exchange between involved stakeholders, and developing a new and efficient logistic model. Consequentially, and improved business and business model was created that allows optimal resource use and reduction of CO2 emission. 

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Sea transportation plays an essential role in world trade. Research indicates that sea transports cover 90% of the world trade, with short distances covering 70% of the global trade transport. The three pilot ports service a substantial flow of goods. However, since these ports act as the logistic chain of ships loading and unloading, terminal operators, port authorities, pilots, waste disposal, among others, the workload of the ports leads to inappropriate resource use as each ship attempt to access the ports quickly. Hence, the authors attempt to create an ICT model that eases navigation and just-in-time operations, reducing inappropriate fuel consumption and unnecessary waiting time for ship loading and unloading. The port authorities effectively managed the ships and cargo traffic, aligning the port’s operation plans using the model.

Conclusion and Opinion

The Port Activity Application (PAA) based on just-it-time is beneficial to the sea transport operations. The port service providers, including tugboats, icebreakers, pilots, and moorings, are arranged on time. Consequentially, pilots are notified early enough when the ship’s schedule changes and the land transportation firms can effectively optimize their operations. However, the success of the PAA model depends on various factors that need adequate consideration. The technological solutions and innovations for sustainable development depend massively on cooperation between the stakeholders. Hence, the model’s success must promote collaboration between the relevant stakeholders. Besides port operators, a functional government offering an organizational framework is crucial for policies and practices that provide legal guidance on data sharing.


While the article offers practical application of the just-in-time concept, it does not gauge the expenses of the port and its operators. Currently, the information on cargo transportation is challenging to access, with most of the available data being imprecise with the method of access data varying. Future studies need to create a business model which allows a combination of cargo flow of neighboring ports to reduce the costs of related firms and port operations.

I believe the PAA model offers a benchmark for developing a single maritime system necessary for complete interface harmonization. The system will be available to all major ports and geared toward utilizing the maximum data available to the ports ensuring efficiency. Based on the three ports research, significant digitization and automation can be achieved globally. Each port can create a system designed to meet their specific needs and reduce time wastage and GHG emissions.


de Andres Gonzalez, O., Koivisto, H., Mustonen, J. M., & Keinänen-Toivola, M. M. (2021). Digitalization in a just-in-time approach as a sustainable solution for maritime logistics in the baltic sea region. Sustainability13(3), 1173.