Clinical Manifestations Present In Mrs. J.

Clinical manifestations can be described as any physical observation the healthcare provider makes, including the subjective data collected from the presented patient. According to Bak et al. (2018), the clinical manifestations data is used in conducting effective diagnosis and developing a proper nursing plan for treatment and discharge of the patient, and this includes any physical or seen symptoms that relate to a disease the patient is suffering and the abnormal functioning of the body organs. In the case of Mrs. J, the clinical manifestations include nausea, fever, productive cough, and malaise. Mrs. J also reports needing assistance in walking short distances, acute exacerbated COPD, and decompensated heart failure. In the case, the subjective data that indicate the clinical manifestations include the Pt. not getting enough air, feeling exhausted, thirsty all the time, having an increased heartbeat, and being anxious.

Nursing Interventions At The Time Of Admission

At the time of Mrs. J’s Admission, the patient reports having a history of chronic heart failure, hypertension, and COPD. The nursing interventions at this point were to help address the conditions and included home administration of 2L of oxygen through a nasal cannula and taking of antihypertensive medications. In addition, the physician also administered IV morphine sulfate, furosemide, Metoprolol, Enapril, and the patient inhaled short-acting bronchodilator, corticosteroid, and oxygen. The medications and interventions were meant to help stabilize the patient and reduce the effects of the symptoms, especially the respiratory issues, that affected the patient’s normal functioning (Parati et al., 2018). The rationale for IV Furosemide was to address the pulmonary edema that affected Mrs. J that may lead to heart failure. Enapril and other antihypertensive medications were meant to treat instances of high blood pressure, with Metoprolol addressing congestive heart failure issues.

Four Cardiovascular Conditions That May Lead To Heart Failure

The four cardiovascular conditions include coronary artery disease, which is characterized by the narrowing of the coronary arteries that may cause obesity due to the effects on the normal flow of blood in the heart and other parts of the body. The medical interventions to prevent heart failure due to coronary artery disease include addressing the risk factors associated with the disease, such as poor diet, lack of exercise, and obesity (Sisti et al., 2018). The second condition is hypertension, where the blood pressure moving through the arteries is higher than normal. The interventions to prevent hypertension include taking antihypertensive medications to stabilize the blood pressure. The third condition is a stroke caused by limited oxygen supply to the brain through blood, damaging the brain. Interventions for stroke include addressing the risk factors, including high blood pressure, obesity, and unhealthy lifestyle. The fourth condition is congenital heart disease, characterized by heart defects in the arteries, veins, and valves. The disease’s intervention includes using pacemakers to regulate blood flow and prevent damage to the heart.

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Four Nursing Interventions For Multiple Drug Interactions

The four interventions that can help prevent problems caused by multiple drug interactions include providing sufficient education to the patient to help them understand the effects of the drugs and how to manage the side effects. This will health the patient, and their caregivers monitor the health and implement proper measures. The second intervention is undertaking medical reviews where the patients should have regular appointments with doctors to ascertain their health status (Brewster et al., 2020). In this health, the physician determines the necessary medications. The third intervention addresses the negative side effects as the patient needs to seek medical help when the effects persist. This will help restore normal health by changing the medications to ones with fewer effects. The fourth intervention is the proviso of alternative therapy. This will limit the effects of drugs.

Health Promotion And Restoration Teaching Plan For Mrs. J

In providing health promotion and restoration teaching plan, one of the effective ways for Mrs. J to ensure stable health is to adopt a healthy lifestyle as the conditions are due to poor health styles. In the process, the patient needs a good diet, physical exercise, and controlling the underlying conditions using medications (Carey et al., 2018). For instance, the patient needs to cease smoking since she still smokes even after being administered 2L of oxygen through the nasal cannula. The patient also skips taking antihypertensive medications, which affect the effective implementation of hypertensive care, leading to heart failure. The patient can seek rehabilitation services to address her alcohol and smoking addiction. In this regard, patient education is essential to understand the risk factors that contribute to her current status.

Method For Providing Education For Mrs. J.

The method for providing education for Mrs. J will be essential in helping them adapt to a healthy lifestyle as well as control the health conditions currently affecting them. Health education will also help the patients become more responsible and adhere to their medication protocols. In this case, the one way of providing education to Mrs. J is through technology, as many educational materials are available online through their computers and smartphones (Ahmet et al., 2018). Through technology, the patient can access adequate information regarding the risk factors and the underlying conditions and apply effective measures to improve their health. The patient can also have educated on sing reminders to take her medication and preventing skipping as this may worsen the situation

COPD Triggers

The COPD triggers can increase the exacerbation frequency, resulting in return visits and hospitalizations. One of the triggers of COPD includes tobacco use which can increase the progression of the disease. In particular, tobacco smoking leads to difficulty breathing, wheezing, and frequent coughing, as seen in Mrs. J, who continues to smoke regardless of her condition (Werchan et al., 2019). Passive smoking is also impactful to non-smokers and can trigger COPD. Air pollution through dust, fumes, smoke, and pollen is also another trigger for COPD, which may lead to the irritation of the lungs.



Ahmet, A., Gamze, K., Rustem, M., & Sezen, K. A. (2018). Is video-based education an effective method in surgical education? A systematic review. Journal of surgical education75(5), 1150-1158.